Gerunds And Past Participle As Adjective


.



Gerunds (-ing)
A gerund phrase will begin with a gerund, an ing word, and will include other modifiers and/or objects. Gerund phrases always function as nouns, so they will be subjects, subject complements, or objects in the sentence.  When a verb ends in -ing, it may be a gerund or a present participle. It is important to understand that they are not the same.
When we use a verb in -ing form more like a noun, it is usually a gerund:
  • Fishing is fun.
When we use a verb in -ing form more like a verb or an adjective, it is usually a present participle:
  • Anthony is fishing.
  • I have a boring teacher.
Gerunds as Subject, Object or Complement
Try to think of gerunds as verbs in noun form.
Like nouns, gerunds can be the subject, object or complement of a sentence:
  • Smoking costs a lot of money.
  • I don't like writing.
  • My favourite occupation is reading.
But, like a verb, a gerund can also have an object itself. In this case, the whole expression [gerund + object] can be the subject, object or complement of the sentence.
  • Smoking cigarettes costs a lot of money.
  • I don't like writing letters.
  • My favourite occupation is reading detective stories.
Like nouns, we can use gerunds with adjectives (including articles and other determiners):
  • pointless questioning
  • a settling of debts
  • the making of Titanic
  • his drinking of alcohol
But when we use a gerund with an article, it does not usually take a direct object:
  • a settling of debts (not a settling debts)
  • Making "Titanic" was expensive.
  • The making of "Titanic" was expensive.
Do you see the difference in these two sentences? In one, "reading" is a gerund (noun). In the other "reading" is a present participle (verb).
  • My favourite occupation is reading.
  • My favourite niece is reading.
Hide answer
reading as gerund (noun)
Main Verb
Complement
My favourite occupation
is
reading.
My favourite occupation
is
football.
reading as present participle (verb)
Auxiliary Verb
Main Verb
My favourite niece
is
reading.
My favourite niece
has
finished.
Gerunds after Prepositions
This is a good rule. It has no exceptions!
If we want to use a verb after a preposition, it must be a gerund. It is impossible to use an infinitive after a preposition. So for example, we say:
  • I will call you after arriving at the office.
  • Please have a drink before leaving.
  • I am looking forward to meeting you.
  • Do you object to working late?
  • Tara always dreams about going on holiday.
Notice that you could replace all the above gerunds with "real" nouns:
  • I will call you after my arrival at the office.
  • Please have a drink before your departure.
  • I am looking forward to our lunch.
  • Do you object to this job?
  • Tara always dreams about holidays.
The above rule has no exceptions!
So why is "to" followed by "driving" in 1 and by "drive" in 2?
1.     I am used to driving on the left.
2.     I used to drive on the left.
Hide answer
to as preposition
Preposition

I am used
to
driving on the left.
I am used
to
animals.
to as infinitive
Infinitive

I used
to drive
on the left
I used
to smoke.

Gerunds in Passive Sense
We often use a gerund after the verbs need, require and want. In this case, the gerund has a passive sense.
  • I have three shirts that need washing. (need to be washed)
  • This letter requires signing. (needs to be signed)
  • The house wants repainting. (needs to be repainted)
The expression "something wants doing" is not normally used in American English.
Gerunds after Certain Verbs
We sometimes use one verb after another verb. Often the second verb is in the infinitive form, for example:
  • I want to eat.
But sometimes the second verb must be in gerund form, for example:
  • I dislike eating.
This depends on the first verb. Here is a list of verbs that are usually followed by a verb in gerund form:
  • admit, appreciate, avoid, carry on, consider, defer, delay, deny, detest, dislike, endure, enjoy, escape, excuse, face, feel like, finish, forgive, give up, can't help, imagine, involve, leave off, mention, mind, miss, postpone, practise, put off, report, resent, risk, can't stand, suggest, understand
Look at these examples:
  • She is considering having a holiday.
  • Do you feel like going out?
  • I can't help falling in love with you.
  • I can't stand not seeing you.
Some verbs can be followed by the gerund form or the infinitive form without a big change in meaning: begin, continue, hate, intend, like, love, prefer, propose, start
  • I like to play tennis.
  • I like playing tennis.
  • It started to rain.
  • It started raining.

 

Recognize a gerund phrase when you see one.

A gerund phrase will begin with a gerund, an ing word, and will include other modifiers and/or objects. Gerund phrases always function as nouns, so they will be subjects, subject complements, or objects in the sentence. Read these examples:
Eating ice cream on a windy day can be a messy experience if you have long, untamed hair.
Eating ice cream on a windy day = subject of the verb can be.
A more disastrous activity for long-haired people is blowing giant bubble gum bubbles with the car windows down.
Blowing giant bubble gum bubbles with the car windows down = subject complement of the verb is.
Wild food adventures require getting your hair cut to a short, safe length.
Getting your hair cut to a short, safe length = direct object of the verb require.

Don't mistake a gerund phrase for a present participle phrase.

Gerund and present participle phrases are easy to confuse because they both begin with an ing word. The difference is that a gerund phrase will always function as a noun while a present participle phrase describes another word in the sentence. Check out these examples:
Jamming too much clothing into a washing machine will result in disaster.
Jamming too much clothing into a washing machine = gerund phrase, the subject of the verb will result.
Jamming too much clothing into the washing machine, Aamir saved $1.25 but had to tolerate the curious stares of other laundry patrons as his machine bucked and rumbled with the heavy load.
Jamming too much clothing into the washing machine = present participle phrase describing Aamir.
Bernard hates buttering toast with a fork.
Buttering toast with a fork = gerund phrase, the direct object of the verb hates.
Buttering toast with a fork, Bernard vowed that he would finally wash the week's worth of dirty dishes piled in the sink.
Buttering toast with a fork = present participle phrase describing Bernard.
My dog's most annoying habit is hogging the middle of the bed.
Hogging the middle of the bed = gerund phrase, the subject complement of the linking verb is.
Last night I had to sleep on the couch because I found my dog Floyd hogging the middle of the bed.
Hogging the middle of the bed = present participle phrase describing Floyd.

Gerunds

Gerunds adalah kara kerja (verb) yang ditambah ing (verb + ing) dan berfungsi sebagai kata benda (noun). Dengan kata lain, gerund adalah kata kerja yang dibendakan/diubah menjadi kata benda dengan menambahkan ing.
Dalam kalimat bahasa Inggris, gerunds mempunyai peran sebagai:


1.     Gerunds as subject
2.     Gerunds as object
3.     Gerunds as subjective complement
4.     Gerunds as object of preposition
5.     Gerunds after word “NO”
6.     Gerunds after possessive adjective
7.     Gerunds after certain verbs
8.     Gerunds as appositive

1)    Gerunds as subject

Berikut ini contoh-contoh gerunds yang berfungsi sebagai subject:

Reading is not my hobby.
Swimming is better than running.
Hiking can be very strenuous.

2)    Gerunds as object

I like reading.
She goes swimming every morning.
Their favorite sport is running.

3)    Gerunds as Subjective Complement

Gerund sebagai pelengkap subjek dalam kalimat biasanya selalu didahului to be  yang terletak di antara subject dan subjective complement, contoh:

Her favorite sport is swimming.

4)    Gerunds as object of preposition

Gerund sebagai objek dari preposisi terletak setelah preposisi, misalnya; for, before, without, in, at, after, dll.

Contoh;
I will wash the dishes after eating.
You cannot be rich man without working.
 
5)    Gerunds after “NO”

Dalam kalimat larangan, kita sering memakai kata “No” dan setelahnya biasanya diletakkan verb + ing yaitu gerunds. Contoh:

No Smoking!
No parking in this area!

6)    Gerunds after possessive adjective

Gerunds juga sering kita jumpai setelah possessive adjective. Misalnya:

Thanks for your coming.

7)    Gerunds after certain verbs

Dalam bahasa Inggris, ada beberapa kata kerja tertentu yang bila kita ingin memasukan kata kerja sesudah kata kerja tersebut, maka kata kerja setelahnya harusnya berbentuk gerund atau verb + ing.
Berikut ini daftar kata kerja-kata kerja tersebut beserta contoh kalimatnya:

Admit               :  He admitted cheating on the test.
Advise              :  The doctor generally advised drinking low-fat milk.

8)    Gerunds as appositive

Gerund sebagai aposisi atau penegas dalam kalimat, contoh:

·  His method, shooting and killing, eventually came to an end.
·  She has a bad habit, gambling.
·  Her favorite exercise, swimming in the pool, makes her body strong.
·  That difficult work, sawing hard woo, makes him exhausted


Participles Used as Adjectives
Both present and past participles are used with the verbs to be and to have to
create common verb tenses, but they can also be used as adjectives. Since
there is a slight difference in meaning between the present and the past
participles when they are used as adjectives, it is very important to choose the
appropriate form.
►Present participles are formed by adding –ing to the verb stem. As an
adjective, a present participle modifies a noun that affects someone or
something else.
The new song is interesting.
The new song was interesting.
►Past participles are formed by adding –ed, to the verb stem, but some of the
irregular forms may end in –d, –en, –n, or –t. As an adjective, a past participle
modifies a noun that is affected by someone or something else.
The fans are interested in the new song.
The fans were interested in the new song.
►Participles generally come before the noun they modify. They may also be
linked to the subject of the sentence by a linking verb such as to be or to feel.
The park is a frightening place at night.
Steve felt frightened as he walked alone in the park at night.

Your Reply